The process of perceiving, listening to, and comprehending spoken language are typically\r\nreported to be more challenging in a non-native language (L2) than in a native language (L1). \r\nSuch findings have been accounted for by differences in linguistic representations, i.e.,\r\nmemory traces, for L1 versus L2. In addition, it is very well understood that language \r\nprocessing and comprehension in bilingual and L2 listeners is generally more impacted by \r\nadverse listening conditions, such as noise, than in L1 listeners.\r\nThe impact of adverse listening conditions on L2 versus L1 listeners has been well\r\ndemonstrated for sentence comprehension in noise. L2 listeners require a higher SNR\r\n(Signal-to-Noise Ratio), in essence less noise, to understand spoken sentences compared to \r\nL1 listeners. Perhaps surprisingly, L2 listeners have been shown to not make use of \r\ncontextual cues to the same extent as L1 listeners when listening to sentences in adverse \r\nlistening conditions. Similarly, L2 listeners struggle more with the perception of sounds\r\ncompared to L1 listeners when these are embedded within higher-order level contexts. \r\nMany open questions remain about how L2 listeners process small linguistic units, such as \r\nmorphemes, in context. This symposium brings together experts and early-career \r\nresearchers to discuss latest research finding, current obstacles, and open questions.